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[英语] 招教考试英语语法复习提纲:主谓倒装

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发表于 2018-9-15 12:42:15 |显示全部楼层
2017年最新教师招聘考试内部教材
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1. 倒装概念:通常英语句子中的主语是在谓语动词之前,这种语序称为自然语序;反之,如果谓语动词在主语之前,这种语序就称为倒装语序。倒装语序又分为部分倒装(即把谓语动词的助动词移至主语之前)和全部倒装(即把整个谓语动词置于主语之前)。

2. 倒装分类:

1) 全部倒装

(1) there 引出的完全倒装句:除了最常见的 there be 句型以外, there 还可以接 appear to be, happen to be, seem to be, exist, lie, remain, stand 等,一般都译成“有”,构成完全倒装句。如:

There seems to be no need to go now.

Long long ago, there lived a king.

(2) here, there, now, then, thus 等副词置于句首,谓语动词是 be, come, go, lie, run 时,用全部倒装结构。如:

There goes the bell.

Then came the chairman.

Here is your letter.

(3) 当表示趋向或地点的状语置于句首,且谓语是表示运动的动词时,用全部倒装结构。如:

Out rushed a missile from under the bomber.

Ahead sat an old woman.

注意:上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语如果是人称代词时,则不用倒装结构。如:

Here he comes.

Away they went.

(4) 为了句子平衡或强调某一成分,有时将表语置于句首而使用全部倒装结构。如:

Gone are the days when we lived in the countryside.

Present at the meeting are my friends from South America.

2) 部分倒装

(1) 在 so (肯定句), neither 和 nor (否定句)引起的句子中,表示前面的情况也适用于另一人或物时,用部分倒装结构。如:

I went there yesterday. So did he.

Tom doesn't like bananas. Neither (Nor) do I.

但如果只是重复前面一句话的意思,主语指的是同一人或物,则不用倒装。如:

— It was cold yesterday.

— So it was.

(2) “ only + 状语”位于句首被强调时,用部分倒装结构,如果only强调状语从句,要倒装主句,而非从句。如:

Only in this way can you solve the problem.

Only then did he realize that he was wrong.

Only when the war was over could he go on studying.

(3) 否定谓语的副词或实际否定谓语的不定代词位于句首,如 no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, rarely, scarcely, nowhere, nothing, nobody, no one, none, few或实际否定谓语的介词短语位于句首,如 in no way, on no account, at no time, in no case, by no means, not until 等,句子用部分倒装结构。如:

Never in my life have I heard such a thing.

At no time and under no circumstances will China be the first to use nuclear weapons. 在任何时间或情况下中国都不会首先使用核武器。

Little do I know about him.

Not until then did he come and help.

Nobody will he turn to for help.

注意:

① 否定介词短语如果实际不是否定谓语,则不能倒装。如:In no time (=very soon) he will be back.

② Not until后跟状语从句时,需要倒装的是主句。如:

Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room.

(4) 当句子以 not only … but also, no sooner … than, hardly / scarcely … when 结构中连接的是两个分句时,not only / no sooner / hardly / scarcely后的分句用部分倒装结构。如:

Hardly / Scarcely had he got on the bus when he heard a shout.

No sooner had I gone to sleep than the telephone rang.

Not only did he buy a bike for me but he also sent it to my house.

(5) 在 so (such )… that 结构中, so 或 such 位于句首时,其所在分句用部分倒装结构。如:

So angry was he that he couldn't speak.

So fast did he run that I could hardly catch up with him.

(6) 非真实条件句中,if sb / sth should do / were (to do) / had done可以倒装成should sb / sth do, were sb / sth…, had sb / sth done。如:

Had I been less busy, I could have helped you.

Should the weather become worse, I would stay at home.

Were I a man, I would have bigger ambitions.

3. 练习

1) 更正下列句子语序错误:

(1) Out the children rushed. (Out rushed the children!)

(2) Look! Here the bus comes! (Here comes the bus!)

(3) So busy she is that she has no time to spare. (So…is she that…)

(4) He is not coming. Neither I am. (Neither am I.)

(5) Few friends he has in the town. (Few friends does he have…)

(6) In no case we will give up our efforts. (In no case will we give…)

(7) With nobody helping around did I still manage to get stuck car movingt. (…I still managed…)

(8) Not until did I wake up I found him gone. (Not until I woke up did I find him gone.)

(9) Only where are there Chinese they can find help. (Only where there are Chinese can they find…)

(10) Between Britain and Ireland lies it. (Between…it lies.)



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