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[英语] 教师招考之英语学科复习精选:题型分析(1)

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发表于 2019-11-16 16:26:06 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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一、完形填空

“完形填空”题是一种旨在考查考生语法和词汇知识综合运用能力的典型题型。它结合了单项选择题和短文填空的优点,既考查词语搭配、近义词辨异、动词时态、句型结构、复合句的关联和习惯用法等,又考查了逻辑推理和事理推断能力。
(一)完形填空题的命题特点

完形填空题是通过阅读考查学生语言知识及语言知识综合运用能力的一种测试形式。命题人在一段难度适度的文章中留出10个空白,要求考生从所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中选出一个最佳答案,使补足的短文意思通顺、结构完整。


完形填空是介于单项填空和阅读理解之间的一种题型。可以说它是根据一篇文章所提供的情景进行的选择填空,也可以说它是在缺少个别单词情况下的阅读理解。完形填空既有对语法规则、习惯用法和词语搭配的考查,又有对文章内容的通篇理解。完形填空主要考查以下三个方面的内容:


1.词汇

此类题目考查的内容是:近义词的区别,词语的固定搭配和习惯用法。近几年教师公开招聘考试中的完形填空题考查的词汇类别涉及名词、代词、动词、介词、连词、形容词、副词和短语动词。

2.语法

此类题目考查的是:各种语法规则在文章中的运用。其中包括名词的单复数,形容词、副词的比较等级,动词的时态和语态,介词、数词、代词和连词的用法,主谓一致,各种从句的用法等。

3.结构

此类题目考查的是:文章中句子与句子之间,段落与段落之间,上文与下文之间的逻辑关系。

从设空的类型看可分为三个层次:

(1)句子层次;(2)句组层次;(3)全篇层次。

设空的难度,从句子层次到句组层次,再到全篇层次,依次增加。


(二)完形填空题的解题技巧

前面我们已经分析过,完形填空是在全面理解短文基础上的选择填空。因此做完型填空题应遵循下列步骤:


1.通读全文,了解大意

做这类题目首先应该把文章通读一遍,了解一下文章的大概内容。千万不要读一句填一句,因为“完形填空”题里所给的大多数选项填入单句后都可成立,但从全文看又不可取。例如:


A hot dog is one of the most popular American foods. It was named after frankfurter, a German food.

You may hear “hot dog” 1  in other ways. People sometimes say “hot dog” to express

 2 . For example, a friend may ask  3  you would like to go to the cinema. You might say “Great! I would love to go.” Or, you could say, “ 4  ! I would love to go.”

People  5  use the expression to describe (描写)someone who is a “show-off”, who tries to show everyone else how  6  he is. You often hear such  7  called a “hot dog”. He may be a baseball player, for example, who  8 the ball with one hand, making a (n)  9  catch seem more difficult. You know he is a hot dog because when he makes such a catch, he bows (鞠躬) to the crowd, hoping to win their  10 .

(1)A. eaten    B. used    C. cooked   D. picked

(2)A. strength     B. practice   C. pleasure   D. reply

(3)A. if           B. How       C. when       D. where

(4)A. Hot dog     B. Don’t worry      C. Never mind   D. Excuse me

(5)A. ever         B. also       C. still     D. yet

(6)A. hopeful    B. careful      C. kind     D. great

(7)A. a dog     B. a land       C. a person     D. an action

(8)A. catches   B. plays       C. passes        D. throws

(9)A. hard      B. funny     C. exciting    D. easy

(10)A. thanks     B. cheers    C. medals      D. matches

如果不看后面的文章内容,短文的第一个题所给的四个选项都可以填入空白处,不论是从语法的角度,还是从这个句子的意思完整的角度,都是能够站得住脚的。但如果继续看完这一段短文之后,你就会领悟到,“hot dog”在这里不是“被吃”,“被做”,“被拿”,而是“被使用”,只能选used。


有些考生一拿到“完形填空”题,就着手去填,填到最后,才发现所选答案与全文的意思不符,不得不再从头开始。费时又费力,还不易做准确,这种方法是不可取的。


2.瞻前顾后,逐步填空

了解文章大意之后,就可逐步填空。 一般来说,文章后面所给的选择答案可分三类:一类是语法正确,而意思不对;另一类是意思正确,而语法错误;第三类是语法正确,意思也正确。在选择答案时,一定要考虑到上下文的意思,还要考虑到句子的结构,习惯用法,固定搭配和词类的功能,尽量使选出的答案既符合语法又符合原文的意思。


3.认真复查,适当调整

填空全部做完以后,应把短文从头到尾再读一遍,检查一下填空以后的文章是否连贯,情节是否合理,语法结构是否正确。一般来说,如果意思连贯,情节合理,语法结构正确,就意味着选答没有问题;如果发现个别填空使文章文理不通,语法结构有问题,就说明选答不正确。对这样的填空应该认真推敲,进行调整。

Once upon a time, some children were playing at seaside when they found a turtle(海龟). They began to beat the turtle. Just at that time, a young man came and said to them, “Stop!” The children ran  1  quickly. The turtle was very thankful and said, “Thanks for your kindness. I really would like  2  you to a wonderful palace now.”

The young man rode on the back of the turtle and was taken to the secret palace in the sea. When he  3  the palace, he was very surprised and said to the turtle, “What a nice palace!” To thank him, the king of the turtles gave him  4 . He had never seen such a dinner before. He received a warm welcome there and was very  5  everything.

After dinner, the king of the turtles said, “I am going to give you two boxes, 6  you can open only one.” “You mustn’t open both. Don’t forget it!” the turtle warned him. “All right. I will open only one,” the young man promised(许诺). At this time, a large wave sent him out of the sea.

After he  7 , he opened the bigger one of the two boxes. 8  the box was full of gold. “My God!” he cried. “I’m  9  now.” Then he thought, “Things in the other box must be expensive, too.” He could not wait any longer. He broke his promise and opened the other box. As soon as he opened it, he became an old man. His hair turned white. His face  10  an old man over eighty years old. It all happened in a moment. He was sorry for what he did, but it was too late.

(1)A. through       B. away        C. into     D. out

(2)A. wanting      B. asking    C. to let       D. to invite

(3)A. left for      B. arrived on     C. arrived at    D. got away

(4)A. a very big dinner     B. a very poor dinner

C. a very bad dinner    D. a very small dinner

(5)A. pleased with     B. strict in      C. angry with     D. sorry for

(6)A. so            B. or       C. but     D. as

(7)A. went back to home  B. was back home

C. went back to the sea D. was back the sea

(8)A. To his surprising     B. To one’s surprising

C. To one’s surprise     D. To his surprise

(9)A. a poor man      B. a rich man       C. an old man    D. a young man

(10)A. liked        B. felt like    C. looked like        D. looked

[解析](1) B根据上下文判断,那些孩子们应该是跑走了。所以应选away。

(2) Dwould like 之后应接不定式,年轻人救了海龟的命,海龟应是“邀请年轻人到宫殿去。”

(3) C到达某个地方应用arrived at。

(4) A按照逻辑,海龟国王要感谢他,必然设盛宴招待他。所以应选a big dinner。

(5) A海龟国王盛情招待他,所以他对一切都满意。pleased with everything表示的就是这个意思。

(6) C海龟国王给了他两个盒子,但只准他打开一个。这里有转折关系,所以应选but。

(7) B年轻人在海里见到了海龟国王,得到了两个盒子以后,应该回家,而不是回到海里,而回家应是was back home。

(8)D使他感到惊讶的是,用英语表示就是To his surprise。

(9)B他得到了金子,当然应该是a rich man。

(10)C由于贪心,他的头发变白了,脸“看起来”像八十多岁的老头。


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