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[英语] 教师招聘考试:中小学英语教师基础知识资料(6)

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发表于 2018-5-19 11:25:21 |显示全部楼层
2017年最新教师招聘考试内部教材
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六、 介 词

(一) 知识概要

介词在英语中用法很活,也无一定规律可循。在初中范围内还应学一个记住一个,特别是那些和动词的特殊搭配。这样长期下去不断学习自然会总结出一套自己的规律来。下面是一般的规律,可帮助学习时参考,千万不要作为定律去背诵,照搬。

介词 表示时间 表示地点方位 表示原因方式 其 他

about 大约在……时间 about five o'clock 在周围,大约多远 about five kilometres 关于、涉及

talk about you

above 高出某一平面

above sea level

across 横过 walk across the street对面 across the street

after 在……之后

after supper

跟……后面

one after another

追赶

run after you

against 背靠逆风

against the wall, against the wind

反对

be against you

among 三者以上的中间

among the trees

at 在某时刻

at ten

在小地点

at the school gate

表示速度

at high speed

向着,对着

at me

before 在……之前

before lunch

位于……之前

sit before me

behind 位于……之后

behind the tree

below 低于……水平

below zero

不合格

below the standard

by 到……时刻,在……时刻之前

by five o'clock

紧挨着

site by site

乘坐交通工具by air, by bick 被由

was made by us

during 在……期间during the holidays

for 延续多长时间

for five years

向……去

leave for Shanghai 为了,对于

be good for you

from 从某时到……某时 from morning till night 来自何方

from New York

由某原料制成be made from

来自何处

where are you from

in 在年、月、周较长时间内 in a week 在里面

in the room

用某种语言 in English 穿着

in red

into 进入……里面

walk into

除 分

divide into

变动

turn into water

near 接近某时 near five years 在……附近 near the park

of 用某种原料制成

be made of

属于……性质

a map of U. S .A

on 某日、某日的上下午on Sunday afternoon 在……上面

on the desk 靠吃……为生live on rice 关于 a book on Physics

over 渡过一整段时间  work over night 在上方

over the desk

超过, 高于  over five pairs

past 超过某一时刻

ten past five

经过某地

walk past the park

since 从某时以来

since 1980

原因

Since you were ill

through 经过某一时期  through his life 通过、穿过某地

through the forest

till until 直到某时为止  till five o'clock

to 差多少时间

five to ten

问,到,去往

to Shanghai

面对面

face to face

给予give a book to me

under 在……下面

under the desk

少于

under ten

在……管制之 下 under the rule

with 用某种工具 with a pen 带着,具有

with me

without 没有

without air

(二) 正误辨析

[误] We got to the top of the mountain in daybreak.

[正] We got to the top of the mountain at day break.

[析] at用于具体时刻之前,如:sunrise, midday, noon, sunset, midnight, night。

[误] Don't sleep at daytime?

[正] Don't sleep in daytime.

[析] in 要用于较长的一段时间之内,如:in the morning / afternoon, 或 in the week / month / year. 或 in spring / supper /autumn / winter等等。

[误] We visited the old man in Sunday afternoon.

[正] We visited the old man on Sunday afternoon.

[析] in the morning, in the afternoon 如果在这两个短语中加入任何修饰词其前面的介词都要改为on, 如:on a cold morning, on the morning of July 14th

[误] He became a writter at his twenties?

[正] He became a writter in his twenties?

[析] 这句话应译为:他在20多岁时就成了作家。在某人的一段生活时间段中要用介词in来表示,而在具体岁数时用at来表示。

[误] He went to New York to find a job in sixteen years old.

[正] He went to New York to find a job at sixteen.

[析] 在具体年岁前用at, 如:at the age of 12, at your age, 等等。

[误] We went to swim in the river in a very hot day.

[正] We went to swim in the river on a very hot day.

[析] 具体某一天要用介词on, 又如:on New Year's Day

[误] I'm looking forward to seeing you on Christmas.

[正] I'm looking for ward to seeing you at Christmas.

[析] 在节日的当天用on,而全部节日期间用at,Christmas是圣诞节期间,一般要有两周或更长的时间。

[误] I haven't see you during the summer holidays.

[正] I haven't seen you since the beginning of the summer holidays.

[析] during表示在某一段时间之内,所以一般不与完成时搭配,如:I visited a lot of museums during the holiday. 而for表示一段时间,可以用于完成时,如:I haven't see you for a long time. 而through 用来表示时间时则为"整整,全部的时间"。如:It rained through the night. 而since则是表达主句动作的起始时间,一般要与完成时连用。

[误] At entering the classroom, I heard the good news.

[正] On entering the classroom, I heard the good news.

[析] On 加动名词表示"一……就"。本句的译文应是:我一进入教室就听见这个好消息了。又如:on hearing… 一听见, on arrival 一到达就……(on表示动作的名词)

[误] In the beginning of the book, there are some interesting stories.

[正] At the beginning of the book, there are some interesting stories.

[析] at the begining与at the end都是指某事物的开始与结束部分,均不指时间范围,而in the beginning 则是指开始一段时间。in the end=at last是指"最终,终于"之意。

[误] Till the end of next week. I will have finished this work.

[正] By the end of next week. I will have finished this work.

[析] by 引起的时间状语表示了动作的截止点,其意思为"不迟于某一时刻将工作做完",所以主句一般是完成时态。当然可以有将来时态,如:I'll be there by five o'clock.而till则表达其一动作一直持续到某一时刻,但句中的动词一定要用持续性动词,而瞬间的截止性动词应用其否定句式,如:I won't finish this work till(until) next weekend.

[误] He came to London before last weekend.

[正] He had come to London before last weekend.

[正] He came to London two weeks ago.

[析] before 一般要与完成时连用,而ago则与一般过去时连用。

[误] I have studied English for three years gince I had come here.

[正] I have studied English for three years since I came here.

[析] since用来表达主句动作的开始时间,所以其引出的从句中应为过去时,而不能用完成时态

[误] I can help you repair this bike. You will get it after two hours.

[正] I can help you repair this bike. You will get it in two hours.

[析] 中文经常讲两小时之后来取,两天内会修好,而这个介词在英文中要用in而不要用after。其原因有二,①after 多用于过去时,如:I arrived in New York. After three days, I found a job in the bank. ② after 加时间是表达一个不确定的时间范围,如:after three days, 即三天之后的哪一天都可以。所以在许诺若干时间内会完成某事时,一定要用介词in。

[误] Three days after he died.

[正] After three days he died.

[正] Three days later he died.

[析] after 与 later都可以用来表达一段时间之后,但它们所处的位置不同,after 在时间词前,而later在时间词后。

[误] She hid herself after the tree.

[正] She hid herself behind the tree.

[析] after多用来表达某动作之后,所以有的语法书中称它为动态介词,如:I run after him. After finishing my homework, I went to see a film. 而behind则多用于静态事物之后。

[误] There is a beautiful bird on the tree.

[正] There is a beautiful bird in the tree.

[析] 树上长出的果实,树叶要用on, 而其他外来的人、物体均要用in the tree.

[误] Shanghai is on the east of China.

[正] Shanghai is in the east of China.

[析] 在表达地理位置时有3个介词:in, on, to。 in表示在某范围之内; on表示与某地区接壤;to则表示不相接。如:Japan is to the east of China.

[误] I arrived at New York on July 2nd.

[正] I arrived in New York on July 2nd.

[析] at用来表达较小的地方,而in用来表达较大的地方。at常用于at the school gate, at home, at a bus stop, at the station, at the cinema, at a small village。

[误] He lived in No. 3 Beijing Road.

[正] He lived at No. 3 Beijing Road.

[析] 在门牌号码前要用at, 并要注意它的惯用法:at the end of the street, at the foot of the mountain, at the top of the page。

[误] There is a colour TV set at the corner of the hall.

[正] There is a colour TV set in the corner of the hall.

[析] 在屋内的角落应用in,而墙的外角用at,如:There is a tree at the corner of the street.

[误] This weekend I'll stay in Uncle Wang's.

[正] This weekend I'll stay at Uncle Wang's.

[析] 要注意英文的特殊表达法,如:at a tailor's shop (裁缝店)=at a tailor's,  at the doctor's (去看病) at the bookseller's (在书店) at uncle Wang's (在王叔叔家)

[误] Do you know there is some good news on today's newspaper?

[正] Do you know there is some good news in today's newspaper?

[析] 在报纸上的新闻要用in, 而在具体某一版上,或某一页上则要用on。

[误] The school will begin on September 1st.

[正] School will begin on September 1st.

[析] 这里的school应看作不可数名词泛指学校的课程,即开学之意。要注意,有些活动场所当表达正在从事该种活动时不要加冠词,如:at table (吃饭), When I came to Tom's home, they were at table. 还有: at desk (学习),at work (工作) at school (上学), in hospital (住医院) at church 作礼拜 如加上定冠词则另有他意,如:at the school 即在学校工作或办事,in the hospital 即在医院工作或去看望病人。

[误] In my way to the station, I bought a newspaper to kill time.

[正] On my way to the station, I bought a newspaper to kill time.

[析] 译文为:在去车站的路上我买了份报纸,为的是消磨时光 "在……的路上"应用on one's way…。而 in the way 有挡道之意,如:Please move the chair it is in the way。

[误] Look, the door is open, Maybe someone broke into.

[正] Look, the door is open, Maybe someone broke in.

[正] Look, the door is open, Maybe someone broke into the office.

[析] in是表达一个静止状态,在与break连用时其后不加介词宾语,而into则是动态介词,与break连用时要加介词宾语。

[误] I'll leave Beijing to Shanghai tomorrow.

[正] I'll leave Beijing for Shanghai.

[正] I'll leave for Shanghai.

[析] leave for 是离开某地去某处的固定搭配,不可将for改为别的介词。这样的搭配还有:start for 动身前往某处,set out for, sail for。

[误] I'm sorry. I have to get out the bus at next stop.

[正] I'm sorry. I have to get out of the bus at next stop.

[析] get in, 与 get out是两个相反的词组。get in 为上车,而get out为下车,但语法家认为这里的in与out为副词,所以其后不能接名词,我们可以讲We'd better get in. 或We'd better get out. 还有一组词组有关上下车:get on/off(a train, a ship, a struck) get into/out of (a car, taxi…)

[误] Be careful? The temperature of the water is ninety degrees over zero.

[正] Be careful. The temperature of the water is ninety degrees above zero.

[析] over 与 above 在作为比某物高的意思时有时可以互换。但在垂直方向上的高矮时,即正上方时则要用above.而泛指上方时用over.

[误] There is an old stone bridge above the river.

[正] There is an old stone bridge over the river.

[析] over还有一意为"跨越,横跨"。

[误] The Dead Sea is under the sea level.

[正] The Dead Sea is below the sea level.

[析] 在垂直下方要用below. 也就是讲above与below互为反意词,over与under也是反意词。

[误] There is a big tree in the front of the house.

[正] There is a big tree in front of the house.

[析] in front of 是在物体外部的前面,而in the front of 是在物体内部的前面,如:The driver sits in the front of the bus.

[误] It took them two days to walk across the forest.

[正] It took them two days to walk through the forest.

[析] across 作为介词有两个主要意思:① 横过,如:I want to walk across the street.② 对面,如:There is a post office across the street,而through 多用于三维空间中的穿越。across则多用于平面上的横过。如:The little girl ran across the room to meet her mother.

[误] The sun sets toward the west.

[正] The sun sets in the west.

[析] towards也可用作toward,它主要表达朝向某方向运动,但不一定到达,如:He ran toward(s) the mountain.而在表示方位east, west, north, south 时,其前面要用in。要注意的是这4个词可以用作副词,如:I went south. 也可用作名词,如:I went to the south.也可用作形容词,如:I went to the south part of China.

[误] Do you have no other clothes except those?

[正] Do you have no other clothes besides those?

[析] beside 是"在……旁边",如:The students stood beside their teachers.而besides是"除……之外,不仅……而且……,除了……以外还有……", 如:I studied English besides French, when I was in college. 而except 则是从同一类物体中去掉某一部分,如:I come here every day except Sunday. 而except for 是指去掉不同种类的事物,如:The room is clean except for two chairs. 而except that则要加从句。

[误] Can I write the exam paper with ink?

[正] Can I write the exam paper with a pen?

[正] Can I write the exam paper in ink?

[析] with后要加拿得起来放得下的工具,而墨水、颜料等原料则要用in。

[误] I'm earlier today. I came here by his car.

[正] I'm earlier today. I came here in his car.

[析] 在交通工具前加介词by,但不能再有任何指示代词或冠词,否则要改换相应的介词。 by taxi=in a taxi

by train=in a train

by bicycle=on a bicycle

by ship=on a ship

by boat=in a boat

by bus=on a bus

by plane=on a plane

by air 空运

by land 陆运

by sea 海运

on foot on horseback

by phone by letter by radio

by air mail by hand

[误] A lot of French wines are made of grape.

[正] A lot of French wines are made from grape.

[析] made of 是指由原材料到成品过程中原材料未发生质地的变化,而发生了某种变化则要用from,如:The desk was made of hard wood.

[误] This is a good dictionary in English grammar.

[正] This is a good dictionary on English grammar.

[析] 关于某方面的书籍、报告等有两个介词,其中on表示某专业用书,about则为某方面的普通读物,如:This is a book about physics.即物理科普知识。

[误] Do you have the key of the door.

[正] Do you have the key to the door.

[析] key to the door门的钥匙。相同用法还有answer to the question, entrance to the highway, danger to health.千万不要用of。

[误] Today a lot of Chinese people have interest of collecting stamps.

[正] Today a lot of Chinese people have interest in collecting stamps.

[析] have interest in是在某方面有兴趣。

[误] I didn't do my homework, so the teacher was angry to me.

[正] I didn't do my homework, so the teacher was angry with me.

[析] be angry with其后接人,而be angry at其后接事。如:He was angry at what she said.

[误] He was good for skating.

[正] He was good at skating.

[析] be good at 为"擅长某事",而be good for somebody为对某人很好。

[误] It was good to you to help my little boy.

[正] It was good of you to help my little boy.

[析] 这句话应译为:你真太好了,帮助了我的小孩。而be good to somebody 是对某人态度好。如:Her mother is good to everyone.

[误] My parents were very pleased at me.

[正] My parents were very pleased with me.

[正] My parents were very pleased at my studying.

[析] be pleased with后加somebody, 而be pleased at后加something。

[误] He is agree with me.

[正] He agrees with me.

[误] He againsts me.

[正] He is against me.

[析] 同意agree为动词,而反对against则为介词。在使用中一定要注意。

[误] I haven't heard letters from him.

[正] I haven't heard from him.

[析] hear from 即为:从某人处得到信件。不要再加letter了。

[误] Teacher. May I call at you this weekend?

[正] Teacher. May I call on you this weekend?

[析] 作为"拜访"讲call at其后接地点,如:May I call at your home this weekend?而call on其后接人。

[误] Do you know the girl on white?

[正] Do you know the girl in white?

[析] in white为穿一身白。与in有关的词组有:in bed(睡觉),in hospital(住院),in a hurry(匆匆忙忙),in danger(危险中),in joy (高兴),in good health(身体好),in love(恋爱),in trouble(困境),与之相反的是out of ,如:out of trouble (摆脱困境),out of date(过时了), out of order(出故障)

[误] He looked at me at surprise.

[正] He looked at me in surprise.

[析] surprise的用法一般有三种。①用于句首,To one's surprise, 如:To my surprise he succeeded. ② be surprised at, 如:I was surprised at the news. ③用于句尾in surprise.

[误] She didn't come to school because of she was ill.

[正] She didn't come to school because she was ill.

[析] because of 后接名词,如:The game was put off because of the rain.

(三) 例题解析

1? - Thank you ___ the beautiful flowers!

- Not at all.

A? in B? on C? at D? for

[答案] D.

[析] 由于某事向某人道谢应用for。

2? Can you answer this question ___ English?

A? by B? in C? with D? from

[答案] B.

[析] in 表示用语言、声音、或材料,如:He answered the question in a low voice.

3? Look ___ the map ___ China ___ the wall, please.

A? after, of, in B? at, of, in

C? after, in, on D? at, of, on

[答案] D.

[析] look at 为"看",而on the wall为"在墙表面挂着",而in the wall 则是"在墙内",如:There is hole in the wall.墙上有个洞。

4? - When did Mr Green arrive in London?

- He arrived there ___ the evening of December 6th.

A? at B? in C? on D? to

[答案] C.

[析] in the evening / afternoon这两个词组不论是在其前或后加上任何修饰词都应将介词换为on,如:on a cold morning, on a spring morning等。

5? We won the relay race. And there was a big smile ___ our teacher's face.

A? off B? near C? on D? between

[答案] C.

6? The twins got on well ___ their classmates.

A? to B? in C? with D? about

[答案] C.

[析] get on well with与人相处很好。

7? - Please remember to come to my birthday party.

- I see. I'll come ___ Saturday evening.

A? in B? at C? on D? for

[答案] C.

8?  Let's hurry, or we'll be late ___ school?

A? to B? at C? with D? for

[答案] D.

[析] be late for, 而 come late to, 如: Don't come late to school?

9?  They will have a maths test ___ two days?

A? for B? at C? in D? after

[答案] C.

[析] 三天之内应用in,而不要受中文影响用after, after three days 是个不定的时间范围,即没有一个准确的时间。5天、6天、10天全是after three days。

10?  My brother joined the army ___?

A? 1989, March B? in March, 1989

C? March, 1989 D? 1989, in March

[答案] B.

[析] 在月份、年、前用介词in,而日子前用on。

11?  He couldn't work out the maths problem ___ your help?

A? without B? under C? for D? with

[答案] A.

[析] 在某人帮助下应用with, 如:With the help of the teacher I passed the exam easily? 而要是没有你的帮助则用 without your help?

12?  Granny took one look at us ___ her glasses?

A? by B? through C? on D? in

[答案] B.

[析] through 为穿过……。

13?  We had our breakfast ___ a quarter ___ seven?

A? /, to B? in, to C? at, to D? on, to

[答案] C.

[析] 具体时间点前用at,而差几分几点用to,这里应译为:我在差一刻七点吃的早饭。

14?  I learn French ___ the radio every day?

A? on B? in C? from D? at

[答案] A.

[析] 从收音机中听到某事应用词组 on the radio。

15?  It's good manners to wait ___ line?

A? in B? on C? at D? with

[答案] A.

[析] in line 为排队。

16?  How many English words had you learnt ___ last term?

A? by the end of B? at the end of

C? to the end of D? till the end of

[答案] A.

[析] by the end of 为动作的截止时间,与完成时态相配合

17?  The manager was very satisfied ___ his work?

A? in B? on C? about D? with

[答案] D.

[析] be satisfied with 为固定搭配。

18?  John hit Jack ___ face?

A? on the B? in the C? on his D? in his

[答案] B.

[析] 英文中的某些动词其后要接人,然后加介词+the+身体部位,如:He caught the boy by the arm。

19?  I was born ___ the night ___ September 15, 1978?

A? in, on B? at, on C? at, in D? on, of

[答案] D.

[析] 在时间前加介词时应以最小的时间单位为准。

20?  It's a bad manner to laugh ___ people when they are ___ trouble?

A? over, in B? at, in C? in, at D? at, for

[答案] B.

[析] laugh at 嘲笑某人, laugh over 笑着谈论某人或某事, in trouble 陷入困境。

21?  I can't do this work well ___ Tom's help?

A? under B? for C? without D? from

[答案] C.

22?  Don't shout ___ the old woman。? You should be more polite ___ her

A? to, at B? at, to C? in, for D? from, for

[答案] B.

[析] shout at 为"冲某人喊叫",而 be polite to somebody 为"对某人和气。"

23?  We must be strict ___ our selves ___ everything?

A? with, in B? in, with C? with, to D? to, of

[答案] A.

[析] be strict with 对某人严格要求。

24?  He went to the football match ___ lunch last Sunday?

A? to B? without C? behind D? between

[答案] B.

[析] without lunch 未吃午饭。

25?  The people's Republic of China was founded ___ 1949?

A? with B? on C? since D? in

[答案] D.

[析] 在年代前用in。因句子是过去时而不是完成时,所以不能用since。

26?  Mr Black got to Hangzhou ___ a few days?

A? in B? after C? on D? at

[答案] B.

[析] 这句话应译为:几天之后 Mr? Black 到达了杭州。而不是在几天之内一定要做完某事,所以选B。

27?  - Has the teacher given you any advice ___ your English study?

- Yes, he has?

A? from B? with C? on D? in

[答案] C.

[析] 给予某一方面问题的忠告其介词用on。

28?  You may depend ___ him? He is ___ honest man?

A? on, a B? in, an C? on, an D? at, the

[答案] C.

[析] depend on 为"依靠某人或某事",而 honest 的首字母 h 不发音。

29?  ___ my joy, I can answer this question?

A? With B? To C? By D? For

[答案] B.

[析] To one's joy 意为"使我高兴的是。"

30?  The teacher asked the students to look ___ the word in the dictionary?

A? for B? at C? up D? after

[答案] C.

[析] look for 寻找, look at 看, look after 照顾, look up 查字典。

31?  A little monkey is playing ___ a tree and there are a lot of bananas ___ it

A? on, on B? in, on C? on, in D? in, in

[答案] B.

[析] 树上长出的果实为 on the tree? 而其他外来之物要用 in the tree, 表达在树上。

32? I go to school ___ bus every morning.

A. in B. by C. on D. at

[答案] B.

[析] by后直接加交通工具,表示乘某种交通工具去某地。

33? No one likes a person ___ bad manners.

A. without B. on C. out of D. with

[答案] D.

[析] with bad manners 有不良习惯的人。

34? The policeman was surprised ___ the news.

A. into B. for C. at D. out of

[答案] C.

[析] be surprised at 对某事吃惊。

35? He had to sell newspapers ___ seven.

A. at an age of B. at the ages of C. at the age of D. at age of

[答案] C.

[析] at the age of 在几岁时。

36? The little girl couldn't help ___ when she saw a large dog.

A. cried B. to cry C. crying D. cries

[答案] C.

[析] couldn't help+动名词表示情不自禁地去做某事,或禁不住做某事。

37? Jack was born ___ March 1st, 1978.

A. on B. in C. at D. of

[答案] A.

[析] 日期,时间前的介词按其表达语中的最小单位计算。

38? Edison was very interested ___ science when he was a boy.

A. to B. on C. in D. about

[答案] C.

[析] be interested in something 对某事感兴趣。

39? The teacher was very satisfied ___ her answer.

A. in B. on C. for D. with

[答案] D.

40? The story happened ___ Beijing.

A. in B. with C. for D. on

[答案] A.



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