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[英语] 教师招聘备考资料之英语基本语法

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发表于 2018-4-4 14:42:20 |显示全部楼层
2017年最新教师招聘考试内部教材
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基本句型

基本句型就是基本的谓语结构的格局,千变万化的句型都是由它们演变而来的。英语的基本句型有五种,即

1. 主——系——表

2. 主——动

3. 主——动——宾

4. 主——动——宾——宾

5. 主——动——宾——宾补

现分述如下:

1. 主——系——表

常用的系动词除be, become, look ,seem, get, appear, feel外,还有grow, turn, remain, come, fall, hold , keep, stand, stay, smell, sound, taste 等。

The motor is out of order.

Her mother has fallen ill.

Silks feel soft and smooth.

2. 主——动

谓语动词是不及物动词,常带有状语。

The fruit store has closed.

The plane will take off soon.

They will fly to London.

3. 主——动——宾

谓语动词是及物动词,后面跟宾语。

The machine is drilling a hole.

The teacher corrected her poor pronunciation more than once.

4. 主——动——宾——宾

此句型中的谓语动词是带双宾语的及物动词。两个宾语中前一个为间接宾语,后一个为直接宾语。这类谓语动词除常见的give, bring, tell, send, leave, pass, read, write, take, show, teach, get,等外,还有award, lend, rent, buy, pay, hand, recommend.

The new way saved us much time.

Could you do me a favor please?

I paid the repairman fifty dollars.


5. 主——动——宾——宾补

此句型中的谓语动词除了一个直接宾语外,还要加上宾语补足语,句子才能完整。而且宾语与它的补足语之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系。这样的及物动词有appoint, believe, call, catch, elect, keep, discover, like , feel, find, hear, prefer, prove, see, warn, make.

I found her rather difficult to work with.

She likes her guests to feel at home.

I warned him not to be late.

The police discovered the check hidden under a pile of papers.

You may leave the child in my care.

句子的结构分类

英语句子按照其结构可分为简单句,并列句和复合句。

1. 简单句

只有一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语动词(或并列谓语动词)的句子称为简单句。

Successful learners are learners with a purpose.

He stopped the car and waited for the red light to change to green.

Voices and music have been added to color and pictures to catch the ear as well as the eye.

2. 并列句

两个或者两个以上的简单句等立连词(或用分号“;” 冒号“:”逗号“,”等)连在一起的句子。常用的等立连词包括and, so , not only, but also, neither or, or, otherwise, either or, but, yet, still, however, while, whereas, for.

She can’t read, neither can she write.

Sometimes I laugh, sometimes I am down.

Some people waste food while others haven’t enough.

The light was red, so I had to stop my car.

3. 复合句

由一个主句和一个或一个以上从句所构成的句子结构叫复合句,也叫主从复合句。从句由关联词引导,关联词将从句与主句联系在一起。根据其在复合句中的作用,从句可分为主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句和定语从句和状语从句。现分述如下:

We move our heads from side to side when we want to say “no”.

(关联词when引导状语从句)

The purpose of a test is to show what you have learned about a subject.

(关联词what引导宾语从句)

Most adults who are learning a foreign language would disagree with the statement.

(关联词who引导定语从句)

The reason for their success is that they can learn from their mistakes.

(关联词that引导表语从句)

Who will chair the meeting is of interest to many of them.

(关联词who引导主语从句)

句子的用途分类

英语句子根据其用途可分为陈述句, 疑问句,祈使句和感叹句,现分述如下:

1. 陈述句

用语叙述一项事实的句子,可以是肯定句,也可以是否定句。

My advice to you is to speak the truth.

They had no way to communicate with Paul.

2.疑问句

提出问题的句子,包括一般疑问句,特殊疑问句,选择疑问句和反意疑问句。

一般疑问句:用yes 或者no来回答的疑问句。句中的助动词和情态动词要放在主语之前,形成倒装语序。

Can you guess who will disagree with this statement?

Will she accept the invitation?

特殊疑问句:就句中的某一部分提出的疑问句,通常的疑问词有who, whom, whose, which, what, where, when, why, how.

What does macaroni look like?

Where did you pay your income taxes?

选择疑问句:提供两种或者以上的情况,问对方选择哪一种的疑问句。通常用or 连接。

Do you expect the price to rise or fall?

Is the action necessary or unnecessary?

反意疑问句:附在陈述句之后,对陈述句所叙述的事实提出相反的疑问的句子。反意疑问句通常表示说话人的迟疑或者没有把握,要求对方用yes或者no来回答。如果答案是肯定的,前面要用yes, 否则用no。陈述句如果是否定结构,反意疑问句则用肯定结构。

She doesn’t often wash her hair, does she?

You haven’t seen Mary up to now, have you ?

3.祈使句

表示请求,命令的句子。祈使句的主语,即听话者,通常被省略。肯定的祈使句谓语动词一律用动词原形,否定结构则在肯定结构前加do not (don’t ).用let 引起的句子是第一人称祈使句。Let’s 表示说话者一方和听话者一方都包括在内,let us 则只指说话者一方。

Practice speaking English everyday.

Please call me a taxi.

Don’t be afraid of making mistakes.

Let’s start work at once.

Let us look at the other side of the problem.

4.感叹句

表示喜怒哀乐的句子,一般有how或者what等感叹词加被强调部分以及陈述句的其他部分构成。

How hard he works!

How happy we are to see you today!

What a pity it is to lose the game again!




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