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[英语] 教师招聘初中英语复习资料:定语从句考点讲解

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发表于 2018-2-6 09:57:38 |显示全部楼层
2017年最新教师招聘考试内部教材
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定语

一、定义:在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。

定语 定语用来限定、修饰名词或代词的,是对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、短语(动词不定式短语、动名词短语和分词短语)或句子,汉语中常用‘……的’表示。主要由形容词担任,此外,名词,代词,数词,分词,副词,不定式以及介词短语也可以来担任,也可以由一个句子来担任。单词作定语时通常放在它所修饰的词之前,作前置定语。短语和从句作定语时则放在所修饰的词之后,作后置定语。

定语从句是指在一个句子中作定语的句子,定语从句要放在所修饰的词后。

如:1) The man who lives next to us is a policeman.

2) You must do everything that I do.

上面两句中的man和everything是定语从句所修饰的词,叫先行词,定语从句放在先行词的后面。

引导定语从句的词有关系代词that, which, who(宾格whom, 所有格whose)和关系副词where, when、why

关系词常有三个作用:

1、引导定语从句

2、代替先行词

3、在定语从句中担当一个成分

二、关系代词引导的定语从句

1.who指人,在从句中做主语

(1)The boys who are playing football are from Class One.

(2)Yesterday I helped an old man who lost his way.

2. whom指人,在定语从句中充当宾语,常可省略。

(1) Mr. Liu is the person (whom) you talked about.

注意:关系代词whom在口语和非正式语体中常用who代替,可省略。

(2) The man who/whom you met just now is my friend.

3. which指物,在定语从句中做主语或者宾语,做宾语时可省略

(1) Football is a game which is liked by most boys. ( which 在句子中做主语)

(2) This is the pen (which) he bought yesterday. ( which 在句子中做宾语)


4. that指人时,相当于who或者whom;指物时,相当于which。

在宾语从句中做主语或者宾语,做宾语时可省略。

(1) The people that/who come to visit the city are all here. (在句子中做主语)

(2) Where is the man that/whom I saw this morning? (在句子中做宾语)

5. whose通常指人,也可指物,在定语从句中做定语

(1) He has a friend whose father is a doctor.

(2) I lived in a house whose roof has fallen in.

whose指物时,常用以下结构来代替

(1)The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired.

=The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired.

(2)Do you like the book whose color is yellow?

=Do you like the book the color of which is yellow?

注:that 用法

(1)不用that的情况

(a) 在引导非限定性定语从句时。

(错)The tree, that is four hundred years old, Is very famous here.

(b) 介词后不能用。

We depend on the land from which we get our food.

We depend on the land that/which we get our food from.

(2) 只能用that作为定语从句的关系代词的情况

(a) 在there be 句型中,只用that,不用which。

(b) 在不定代词,如:anything, nothing, the one, all等作先行词时,只用that,不用which。

(c) 先行词有the only, the very, the same, the last, just修饰时,只用that。

(d) 先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时,只用that,不能用which。.

(e) 先行词既有人,又有物时。

(f) 先行词指物,在主句中作表语时.


(g) 为了避免重复.

(h)先行词是the way或the reason时,that可作关系副词,也可省略

(i) 主句的主语是疑问词who /which时

举例:

Is this the book that you borrowed in the library?

这是你在图书馆借的那本书吗?

Who that break the window should be punished.

谁打碎了窗户都要受到惩罚.

All that is needed is a supply of oil.

所需的只是供油问题。

Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police.

那贼最终把偷的全部东西交给了警察。

三、关系副词引导定语从句

关系副词 关系副词:在句中作状语

关系副词=介词+关系代词

why=for which

where=in/ at/ on/ ... which (介词同先行词搭配)

when=during/ on/ in/ ... which (介词同先行词搭配)

1. where指地点,在定语从句中做地点状语用来表示地点的定语从句。

(1) Shanghai is the city where I was born.

(2) The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down.

2. when引导定语从句表示时间。在定语从句中做时间状语也可做连接词用

(1) I still remember the day when I first came to the school.

(2) The time when we got together finally came.

[注]表示时间“time"一词的定语从句只用when引导,有时不用任何关系代词,当然也不用that引导。

By the time you arrived in London, we had stayed there for two weeks.

到你到达伦敦的时候,我们在那里已经待了两个星期。


I still remember the first time I met her. 我仍然记得我第一次见到她。

Each time he goes to business trip, he brings a lot of living necessities, such as towels, soap, toothbrush etc。

每一次他去出差,他带来了生活必需品,如毛巾,肥皂,牙刷等,很多。

3. why指原因 在定语从句中做原因状语

(1) Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane.

(2) I don’t know the reason why he looks unhappy today.

注意:关系副词引导的从句可以由“介词+关系代词”引导的从句替换

(1) The reason why/ for which he refused the invitation is not clear,

(2) From the year when/in which he was going to school he began to know what he wanted when he grew up.

注:1)介词后面的关系代词不能省略。

2)that前不能有介词。

3) 某些在从句中充当时间,地点或原因状语的"介词+关系词"结构可以同关系副词when ,where和why 互换。

This is the house in which I lived two years ago.

This is the house where I lived two years ago.

Do you remember the day on which you joined our club?

Do you remember the day when you joined our club?

This is the reason why he came late.

This is the reason for which he came late.


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